Researchers find repeated gene duplications and genetic diversification in protein kinase R in mouse ears

Researchers find repeated gene duplications and genetic diversification in protein kinase R in mouse ears

HAS) sites under positive selection in mammalian protein kinase R (PKR). Graphic panels represent the posterior probabilities of positive selection [Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB)] (j axis) in the M2 model (ω > 1) for each codon (x Axles). Red bars indicate locations with a BEB >0.95. Numbers in parentheses are the total species analyzed. Viral antagonists: herpes virus US11, influenza A (IAV) virus NS1A, smallpox virus E3 and K3 (green striped boxes), hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A, and human immunodeficiency virus Tat, which have been reported to directly interact with PKR to interact. (B) maximum likelihood phylogeny of the bat PCR indicating the branches under positive selection (P < 0.05, in red). Parentheses, estimated values ​​of ω, and the proportion of sites under positive choice. Scale bar, number of replacements per site. (vs) maximum likelihood phylogeny of myotis PKR paralogous transcripts, with murina aurata, E. fuscus, Lasius Borealisand Pipistrellus kuhlii as outgroups (collapsed for visualization). PKR1L and PKR2L can be paralogues or splice variants of PKR1 and PKR2, respectively. The colors show the duplicate PKRs isolated from one individual. Bootstrap scores of ≥0.7 are reported. Scale bar, number of replacements per site. (D) Canonical place of EIF2HASK2/PKR in mammals. tea EIF2AK2 Genes (black and gray arrows) that EIF2AK2 Pseudogene (striped arrow) and adjacent genes (white arrows) are shown. The genomic coordinates are given. (E) Expression pattern of PKR paralogs after basal and IFNα treatment of Mr Velifer fibroblasts. Boxplots represent the number of reads in the log10 Scale for each condition and PKR copy (for exons found in both genes). Recognition: scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.add7540″ width=”800″ height=”500″/>
PKR was the target of strong diversification of positive selection and original replication in bats.(HAS) sites under positive selection in mammalian protein kinase R (PKR). Graphic panels represent the posterior probabilities of positive selection [Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB)] (j axis) in the M2 model (ω > 1) for each codon (x Axles). Red bars indicate locations with a BEB >0.95. Numbers in parentheses are the total species analyzed. Viral antagonists: herpes virus US11, influenza A (IAV) virus NS1A, smallpox virus E3 and K3 (green striped boxes), hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A, and human immunodeficiency virus Tat, which have been reported to directly interact with PKR to interact. (B) maximum likelihood phylogeny of the bat PCR indicating the branches under positive selection (P < 0.05, in red). Parentheses, estimated values ​​of ω and the proportion of sites under positive selection. Scale bar, number of replacements per site. (vs) maximum likelihood phylogeny of myotis PKR paralogous transcripts, with murina aurata, E. fuscus, Lasius Borealisand Pipistrellus kuhlii as outgroups (collapsed for visualization). PKR1L and PKR2L can be paralogues or splice variants of PKR1 and PKR2, respectively. The colors show the duplicate PKRs isolated from one individual. Bootstrap scores of ≥0.7 are reported. Scale bar, number of replacements per site. (D) Canonical place of EIF2HASK2/PKR in mammals. tea EIF2AK2 Genes (black and gray arrows) that EIF2AK2 Pseudogene (striped arrow) and adjacent genes (white arrows) are shown. The genomic coordinates are given. (E) Expression pattern of PKR paralogs after basal and IFNα treatment of Mr Velifer fibroblasts. Boxplots represent the number of reads in the log10 Scale for each condition and PKR copy (for exons found in both genes). Recognition: scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.add7540

An international team of researchers has found evidence of repeated genomic duplication and genetic diversification in protein kinase R (PKR) in mouse ears. In her article published in the journal scientific advancesthe group describes their genomic study of several species of mouse-eared bats and their sequencing of 15 of them.

Previous research has shown that bats can harbor many viral infections that do not harm them – this is one of the reasons they have been implicated as a vector for viruses that spread to other animals and/or humans. In this new effort, researchers wanted to learn more about why bats are able to survive unharmed when infected with viruses that harm most other mammals.

The team’s work mainly focused on PKR – a protein encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene. Previous research has shown that it is an important part of the immune response to viruses in mammals. To learn more about how it works in bats compared to other mammals, the researchers looked at gene sequences from 33 species of mouse-eared bats.

They focused most specifically on differences in EIF2AK2 that lead to differences in PKR, which in turn represent different virus-fighting abilities. The team also sequenced the genomes of 15 species to gain a broader view of the role played by EIF2AK2 in mouse-eared bat history.

The researchers found evidence of what they call an arms race between EIF2AK2 and different viruses. And as part of that arms race, duplication eventually emerged. EIF2AK2 appeared twice in the genome, making it possible to produce two different types of PKR in each bat studied. And the two versions not only doubled virus killing; They were slightly different and allowed the bat that housed them to fight a virus in two ways. And that, the researchers suggest, is probably why bats can harbor viruses without getting sick.

The researchers also found some species that had more than two copies of EIF2AK2, and in some cases other genes that were very similar to EIF2AK2. Either way, it probably makes the bats even better able to fight off viruses. They also noted that such duplications have so far only been found in bats.

More information:
Stéphanie Jacquet et al, Adaptive duplication and genetic diversification of protein kinase R contribute to the specificity of bat-virus interactions, scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.add7540

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Quote: Researchers Find Repeated Gene Duplications and Genetic Diversification in Protein Kinase R in Mouse Ears (2022 November 25) Retrieved November 26, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-11-gene-duplications-genetic-diversification – protein.html

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